Pelvic pain is the pain in the region below the umbilicus to the area between the hips. It can result from several causes like infection, inflammation, and conditions affecting the organs of the pelvic region. Pelvic pain can be dull or sharp, constant or intermittent, acute or chronic. Acute pelvic pain is sudden and usually severe. Pelvic pain that lasts longer than six months and is not improving with treatment is known as Chronic pelvic pain.
Some of the common causes of pelvic pain are-
- Dysmenorrhea or menstrual cramps.
- Pelvic inflammatory diseases- Symptoms include painful urination, fever, and abnormal vaginal discharge due to infection of the female reproductive organs.
- Endometriosis -The lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus. It leads to painful cysts, adhesion formation, and heavy menstrual bleeding.
- Ectopic Pregnancy– It is the implantation of the embryo in the fallopian tube instead of the uterus.
- Uterine Fibroids– Abnormal non-cancerous growths found on or in the uterine wall.
- Painful bladder syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis- Symptoms include bladder pain, urinary frequency, and urgency. Pain is often relieved by bladder emptying.
- Irritable Bowel Syndrome(IBS)– Symptoms include pain, bloating, constipation, and diarrhea. It is also known as the Spastic colon. Stress and diet are aggravating factors of IBS.
- Appendicitis– Sudden sharp pain occurs on the right side of the lower abdomen. Fever and vomiting are other symptoms of appendicitis. It is a medical emergency that requires immediate care.
- Kidney stones and Urinary tract infection(UTI) are the urethral causes of pelvic pain.
- Pudendal Neuralgia- is a neural condition arising due to the impingement of the pudendal nerve. Present as pain in the genital region.
- Hypertonic pelvic floor– It is due to spasms and tightness of the muscles of the pelvic floor.
Treatment of pelvic pain depends on the causative factor. History of the pain and various blood tests, urine tests, abdominal X-ray, ultrasound, hysteroscopy, colonoscopy, and diagnostic laparoscopy are some of the useful tools to diagnose pelvic pain. Do not ignore your pelvic pain and get it examined.
STAY INFORMED! STAY HEALTHY!