- Diabetic foot is a chronic and dreaded complication of diabetes mellitus. It occurs secondary to peripheral neuropathy in diabetes or peripheral artery disease. It results in foot infection and ulcers.
- When peripheral neuropathy occurs, it leads to loss of sensation in the foot. As a result, any micro-trauma can lead to cuts and soreness as the patient has a sensory loss. It can further lead to infection and ulcers.
- Foot deformities also increase the risk of the diabetic foot due to increased plantar pressure. Other risk factors include being overweight and smoking.
- Regular foot examination for any skin lesion, redness, and infection is of prime importance to prevent diabetic foot.
- Controlling sugar levels with diet, exercise, and medication is vital.
- Maintain good foot hygiene. Keep your feet dry and skin soft and smooth. Remove any hard skin with pumice stone and trim your nails regularly. Wear well-fitted shoes.
- To improve blood flow to the feet, do regular ankle pumps, toe curls, and toe extension exercises.
- Antibiotics, antimicrobial drugs, vascular debridement, and surgery are the main lines of treatment for the diabetic foot.
- Offloading the foot is required to allow healing of the ulcer. Casting is generally used for this purpose.
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